13 things your Board must know about your NPO

Gabrielle Ritchie | Director, The Change Room | 21st June 2017

Good governance is the foundation of a successful NPO. Governance can make or break your organisation – if it is great you can fly, if it is poor you can fail.  In NPOs, therefore, we should know as much as possible about the key features of our organisational governance.

But what are they key governance-related facts your Board should have at its fingertips:

Here are the 13 top things your Board must know about your NPO:

  1. What kind of entity is our NPO?

In terms of the law: in South Africa, your NPO could be one of three kinds of entity – a voluntary association, a trust, or a non-profit company (ex-Section 21 company, an entity type which no longer exists)

  1. What kind of founding document do we have?

If you are a voluntary association, you will have a constitution.  If you are a trust, you will have a trust deed. And if you are a non-profit company, you will have a Memorandum of Incorporation.  There are no other options.  Those three are it.  Your Board should know which kind of founding document your organisation has – and should refer to it in those terms.

  1. Is our NPO registered as such with the Department for Social Development’s NPO Directorate?

For NPOs to be able to access all the legal and tax benefits of being a non-profit in South Africa, and in most cases to be able to access donor funding, they need to be registered with the NPO Directorate.  Successful application will result in you being issues with an NPO registration number clearly indicated on an NPO registration certificate issued by the NPO Directorate.  NPO – which stands for non-profit organisation – is a generic term for a non-profit or non-governmental entity in South Africa.  As such, your organisation is an NPO regardless of whether you are constituted as a voluntary association, a trust or a non-profit company. It is critical that your Board knows that should you not comply with the Directorate’s requirements – such as submission of annual audited financials – you can be deregistered as an NPO, which can have a number of negative knock-on effects (such as donors keeping a long barge pole between themselves and your organisation!)

  1. What is our NPO registration number?

All of your Board members should have a copy of the NPO registration certificate somewhere in their Board manual, and should be able easily to access the NPO registration number.

  1. Are we registered as a public benefit organisation (PBO) with SARS?

Being awarded PBO status as a non-profit means that SARS considers you a tax-exempt organisation. Which means you don’t have to pay tax on your income (there are limits to this untaxed income depending on how it is generated, and how it links to your overall NPO mission – but you’d need a tax or NPO finance specialist for that.  Ideally, you’d have one of those on your Board, but there are not a huge number of accountants around who are deeply familiar with NPO finance, law and tax matters!).  Being tax-exempt – and SARS will issue you with a PBO number in addition to your income tax number – does not exempt you from submitting tax returns, however.  Go to the SARS site to find out more about income tax returns for tax-exempt organisations.

  1. Are we registered with any other entities or professional bodies?

Many NPOs register with professional associations in their sector, or may be part of broader sector networks.  Your Board should know about these memberships, whether there is a fee, and what benefit they bring to the organisation besides (as may be the case) a legal requirement and/or professional status.

  1. What are the main laws governing our NPO?

All NPOs are subject to a few basic Acts in South Africa.  These include the Nonprofit Organisations Act, the Income Tax Act and a range of other Acts including the Basic Conditions of Employment Act.  Your Board must establish which other laws are pertinent to its work (eg. Acts relating to health, child welfare, criminal justice, education, rights and social justice, information).

  1. How many board members does our founding document specify we must have?

An NPO founding document will somewhere specify the number of board members.  If the Board does not have this number, it should be recruiting for new members based on identified skills gaps on the board. Most South African NPO boards have between five and eight board members.  It should not be more than eight, including the organisational Director (whether ex-officio or, in the case of non-profit companies, as a full Board Director).

  1. To whom does our NPO need to submit annual and/or other reports?

All NPOs need to submit annual audited financials to the NPO Directorate, to maintain their registration.  In addition, those NPOs who also have PBO status need to submit their annual audited financials to SARS.  Further, non-profit companies – all of which are registered through CIPC (Commercial and Intellectual Property Commission) – must submit annual audited financials to CIPC.  NPOs who receive funding from Department of Health, Education or Social Development are usually also required to submit monthly and annual reports. Your Board needs to know who must be reported to, how often these reports must be submitted, and whether these reports are being submitted timeously.

  1. When is our financial year-end?

Board members must have a good grip on the NPOs financial management, including when the NPOs financial year-end is.  In most cases it will either be end-Feb or end-March in any given year.  Your Board needs to know this, as it impacts on planning and timing around the preparation of annual audited financials, the Board signing off on the statements, and the submission of these financials to the relevant bodies indicated in (9) above.

  1. Are we able to issue Section 18A tax deduction certificates to our donors, where applicable?

Section 18A status, which allows an organisation to offer a tax benefit to its donors, must be specifically applied for, and is only granted to organisations working in areas of the public benefit activities (PBA) specified by SARS.

  1. When is our NPO AGM?

While it might be a matter of good governance practice to hold annual general meetings every year, it is not a requirement – unless this is specified in your founding document.  Voluntary associations hold annual general meetings, and non-profit companies with members (aka shareholders in the for-profit sector), but trusts do not have members and generally don’t hold AGMs.  Some organisations, regardless of entity and/or requirements per founding document, like to hold annual meetings as a way to engage their communities, friends, supporters, donors and – where relevant – government departments with a vested interest in the success of the organisation.  Your board members must know what is required of your NPO in terms of an AGM.

  1. Have we signed on to the Independent Code of Good Governance for Nonprofit Organisations in South Africa?

This Code of Good Governance outlines the key principles, values and practices of good governance in nonprofits – and shines a spotlight on the key responsibilities of any NPO board member.  This Code provides a “sign-on sheet” which facilitates the Board of an NPO to declare that it has adopted the Code to guide its governance practices.  This Code has no legal standing and is an in-principle commitment which is self-regulated, providing an excellent guide for monitoring one’s organisational governance.  More information can be found at www.governance.org.za.  PS  – if you Board signs on, you also get to display the Independent Code logo on your organisational platforms and marketing materials. It looks good to donors – and it’s a great logo.

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For insights into whether your Board is fundraising-fit, and why it needs to be, see my blog on this at https://philanthropediasa.wordpress.com/2016/06/03/507/

To support your Board, alert them to the great governance-focused resources at:

  1. Ricardo Wyngaard’s site nonprofitlawyer.co.za
  2. The Inyathelo resources site askinyathelo.org.za

 

 

 

Top 5 nonprofit issues in South Africa: sustainability, governance, voluntarism, and others

Gabrielle Ritchie | Director | The Change Room – 16th May 2017

As I was training my brain this morning by coming up with ten ideas (for anything at all, no limits, no judgement), I started thinking about all of the issues that continuously come up in running/ working in/ managing/ being on the board of an NPO in South Africa.  So I made a list of the Top Five nonprofit issues as one of my lists for the day.  Here they are:

  1. Sustainability: NPOs are constantly under pressure to become sustainable, but what does this really mean?  Does it mean self-sustaining?  And if so, what is the difference between a for-profit and a non-profit?  Or does it mean that an NPO is sustainably able to attract funding support and to generate income into the future.  I am going with the latter.  So stop telling NPOs they have to sustain themselves.  If you don’t qualify what you mean, then the premise makes no sense and it is just confusing and – in my opinion – rubbish.
  2. Volunteers: There are so many people out there with the skills, the time and the will to offer their support to NPOs.  Yet I am increasingly hearing of qualified professionals (never mind unqualified but willing people), well-qualified to offer support in (for example) accounting, marketing, report-writing, fundraising, HR management, strategy development, and other areas, who are being given something of a cold shoulder by organisations. But we know that NPOs are usually too under-capacitated even to manage volunteers.  Its a lose-lose and something needs to shift. I am going to focus on this issue in a future blog, since it warrants a discussion.
  3. Board Directors: in South Africa we promote the ethics of good governance in accordance with the Independent Code of NonProfit Governance for South African NonProfit Organisations – and we promote the international standards around avoiding conflict of interest at a board and staff level.  This is with particular reference to remuneration/ compensation for Board members’ time for Board business, and with regard to Board members tendering / pitching for work as providers/ suppliers in response to organisational needs.  What is not taken into account in our particular socio-economic structure is that Board members are often from within the NPO’s direct community, yet are unemployed and are usually in need of income.  To adhere to codes and ethics and good practice, do we simply not have unemployed people on the Board (where there is a distinction between retired/ not working and unemployed)?  See this blog for some thoughts on Boards and fundraising.
  4. Entrenched Boards:  this is a big, sticky one!  Board members should serve a term of three years, and might – under certain circumstances – serve a second three-year term.  But Board members MUST NOT stay on a board endlessly.  Even if the organisation feels like your baby.  If you have been on a board for more than six years, you are starting to hinder the organisation. Yes, really.  Your thinking is stale, your resistance to change and new initiatives is damaging, and you are starting to treat the organisation as if things must be done a certain way “because that’s how we do things here”. No, Board members.  Move on.  You are doing your organisation a dis-service.  It is your job as a Board to ensure that new, suitable, energetic and committed Board members are identified, stewarded, invited to be Board members, and are then inducted and trained thoroughly in what it means to be a Board member of that NPO and what is required of Board members. So if you are thinking you need to stay because there is nobody to take over, you have failed.  Ensure there are strong candidates lined up – because life happens and you never know when you might need to recruit new Board members. Know who your next board members are!
  5. Donors: some fundraising models will tell you that fundraising is all about relationships.  Does that then mean that community-based organisations which are English-second language, and rural (and are marginalised in other ways as well) won’t be able to raise funding?  Or do we relegate these organisations into the “cold-calling/ spray-and-pray” bucket and wish them luck?  Since it is overwhelmingly challenging for such organisations to build relationships with well-resourced and wealthy business people and other professionals, what are the key routes to attracting funding for community-based organisations? See this previous blog for thoughts on the challenges faced by so many NPOs, and this blog for insights into what donors are looking for in an application/ proposal.

The top five issues impacting your NPO will depend on your geographic location, the size of the organisation, the effectiveness of your board, the resources you already have to invest in scaling up your fundraising work, and your organisational capacity to host, support and leverage the value offered by volunteers.

Feeling challenged? What are your top five issues right now? Post them here and I would be happy to provide quick pointers in response 🙂

The South African NPO Funding Crisis – again?

quote from www.resourcingphilanthropy.org.za

Gabrielle Ritchie, Director, Change Room

4th May 2017

If you think that the South African NPO sector is in a particularly tight and horrible funding crisis right now, battered from all sides by events impacting negatively on funding sources, that’s understandable.  You will have been bombarded with a range of tweets, blog posts, articles and chat around which latest local, national, regional or global event is going to make it harder for us to raise funds – and how or why it might make it harder.

I kind of have news for you, though.  Raising funding in support of your non-profit work has never been an easy task. It takes incredibly hard work, and consistent excellence in the practice of a few fundraising basics.  While it isn’t rocket science, it does take commitment, and it requires investment – in whatever way your organisation is able to invest.  This might be budget, for a staff post, a marketing campaign, the implementation of a donor CRM database, or the development of a 5-year strategy and operation plan for attracting funding.  It might be staff time, to conduct 1 hour of prospect research every day, or to staff fundraising events, or to contribute to your organisation’s public profiling efforts.  It might be your volunteers, your board members, or a series of video stories.  However your organisation is able to define “resource”, your organisation will not attract funding without some well-planned resource investment.

So is there a crisis?  Is it getting worse?  Do we need to be on constant watch for what Zuma said at #WEF2017, or Trump’s bulldozing efforts to cease foreign funding (or at least significantly contract existing funding programmes). How impactful was Zuma’s Cabinet Reshuffle, and how will those impacts play out? Does non-profit funding at a local level require economic confidence at a global level?

For every action, there is a reaction.  Basic physics, really. And funding streams have not been predictable for South African non-profits for quite some time, if ever. Since 1994, and no doubt prior to that, non-profits have been hit with one or other “latest funding crisis”.  In 1994, foreign donors decided to channel their funding through the new government’s RDP initiative, rather than fund non-profits directly. These crises have continued emerging, and will definitely continue to do so.  Change is the only constant!

This means that non-profits cannot EVER take funding for granted.  This is a serious and difficult challenge, because all organisations are focused on doing the work they were set up to do – and if funding seems to be taking care of itself, then little attention is paid to building new relationships and identifying new prospective funding sources.  For example, many social justice organisations in South Africa are funded in most part by a well-known group of social justice-focused funders.  My advice?  Do not take your eye off the ball.  We know there are no guarantees that funding will continue to come in from those same sources, but we often ignore this basic funding rule in the interests of being able to get on with the work.  Unsurprising.  But, just like in most for-profits where the next contract/ customer/ client is being sought or pitched to or chased, so too in non-profits we need to identify potential partners and pursue with vigour and commitment to bringing in that next funder, to support us in driving our work forward.

If only the funding crisis would just settle already. It isn’t going to. So is it indeed a crisis?  It feels like it for organisations struggling to find support for their work, but it has levelled out into the “existing state of affairs”. The funding terrain has its peaks and troughs, it’s easier times and rougher times – but if you had to ask any non-profit who has successfully attracted sufficient funding and support to cover overheads, “programme” costs, and growth, you will find an organisation with a strong focus on profiling their work, identifying funders, networking, building relationships – by any means necessary.  And even then, it ain’t easy.

In short, then, it is almost guaranteed that any morning news headline could be argued to have a potential impact on South African non-profit funding.  So keep your eye on what is happening out there, but definitely keep focused on building your organisational profile, ensuring excellence in organisational governance, and don’t stop looking for opportunities in their multiplicity of forms.

 

 

Digital space, civil society and nonprofits in South Africa

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Gabrielle Ritchie, Director, The Change Room

25th November 2016

So what is the state of play in South African digital civil society?  My last post looked at the importance of defending digital spaces in South Africa – but now I go back a bit, to the nitty-gritty of digital civil society. This broad phrase refers to a broad mix of concerns, approaches, practices and activities ranging from building the public profile of a cause, to defending current levels of freedom, openness and accessibility of digital space.

Enset has been running a global workshop series focused on supporting civil society organisations around the world to navigate what Enset refers to as “the complex digital landscape” to achieve online effectiveness.  Enset’s mission with these workshops and panel discussions is to identify and, likely, help create the best paths for the use of digital space by non-profits globally.

The Enset/ Resource Alliance panel discussion, of which I was a part – held at Bandwidth Barn in Cape Town on 4th October 2016 – was titled, “NGOdigitalspaces & Civil Society”.  The discussion addressed a range of issues and practice areas in the digital space, such as:

  • What is the role of Social Media in building civil society?
  • How is digital fundraising changing the donor relationship and giving overall?
  • What are some of the risks and challenges of digital spaces, and what can non-profits to address these?
  • What is the political / regulatory environment and implications of a new NPO Act in South Africa?
  • What is the future of digital spaces for civil society – opportunities, challenges and potential threats?
  • What is the importance of credibility and validation within the sector?

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A number of organisations and individuals spoke to their particular concerns, the work they do, and how their work serves to address their concerns.  The panel and issues included:

  1. Jeri Curry, president and CEO, Enset: introduction to the non-profit and civil society digital space, and to the work of Enset – and also navigated the panellists inputs, facilitating the discussion with great knowledge and expertise.
  2. Baratang Miya, founder and CEO, GirlHype: now here is somebody to watch and keep up with. Baratang spoke about her initiative to encourage girls into the digital and tech space, not as users but as innovators.  Great stuff.
  3. Michelle Jones, head of content for digital agency RogerWilco: Michelle shared lessons from a successful client project, showing how paying careful attention to messaging, content, design and site architecture can completely change levels, frequency and type of user interactions with your online presence
  4. Gabrielle Ritchie, Director, The Change Room: This is me – I spoke about the need to defend digital spaces, as these levels of freedom increasingly come under the state spotlight and as non-profit organisations are under pressure from government. I also shared insights about the legislative framework that currently governs this space in South Africa.
  5. Colin Habberton, IFC Ambassador, South Africa: Colin shared insights into the use of digital platforms for fundraising and for profile-building for organisations and causes, and stressed the importance – across a range of factors – of building an online profile
  6. Michelle Matthews, Head of ED and Innovation, CiTi: Michelle’s focused on trends in ICT and the digital economy, and she shared details of a fantastic digital project supporting start-up and established social enterprises and businesses, including the development of an innovative toolkit (which we all wanted a copy of!)

Are you starting to get the picture?  Around the breadth and depth of any discussions about “digital space”?

We can talk about developments in digital technology; the use of digital technologies for the promotion of civil society campaigns; the role of an online presence in promoting your non-profit organisation and in stakeholder/ supporter/ donor communications; the importance of content in building a profile and positive footprint in the online space; the role of civil society organisations in promoting and encouraging the involvement of girl learners in the digital tech space; the importance of an online presence for fundraising (both on- and off-line); the pressure (globally) on civil society and the closure of operating spaces, both physical and digital; and the legislative framework governing the use of digital technology (eg. drones for journalism) and online spaces.  That’s just the start.

In addition, there is a boatload of information that non-profits need to keep up with – such as the 2014 transition of the org.za domain (used by most South African non-profits for their web presence) to a new regulatory authority, and the implications for non-profits using org.za.  Again, just the start.

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Enset’s work has had the effect not just of providing spaces to have discussions about digital spaces and civil society, but also of connecting activists and digital specialists locally and globally.  It is critical that we are talking to each other, in light of my particular concern – as per my previous post – about the defence of digital spaces as we see an increase in governments clamping down on activities that challenge their actions (or lack of action).

This space is absolutely critical for civil society organising, as a still-democratic space providing for the proliferation and platforming of a range of voices critical to debate, discussion, defining the languaging around particular issues, and moving away from the dominance of traditional media and their ownership of public discourse.  This has changed irreversibly, and this space must be defended.

Philanthropy in South Africa: Support for defending digital civil society

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Image from Heinrich Boll Foundation. Creator: Niklas Hughes

Gabrielle Ritchie: Director, The Change Room

16th November 2016

Philanthropic funding is critical for a host of democracy-defending and –strengthening initiatives that would otherwise have little or no financial support at all to implement the tough work that needs to be done to defend our democratic space.  In South Africa, we must remain vigilant about our freedoms and must continue to push to ensure that rights – as per our constitution – are realised for all.

So where does digital fit into discussions on democracy, development and donors?

I have been thinking a lot about digital civil society – which, in my view, is the same thing (at least currently they remain the same) as civil society using digital technology.  A few weeks back, I had the energising experience of being part of an Enset/ Resource Alliance panel discussion in Cape Town about South African civil society and the digital space, which I will be writing about in the next week or so (so watch this space!).  It’s a huge topic, with so many sub-topics, not all of which link up neatly together.  The digital space and its implications for civil society has been a hot topic for precisely this reason – there is SO much to discuss!

One of my most favourite, self-proclaimed philanthropy wonks is Lucy Bernholz. Her latest blog post is about digital civil society and the looming threats to freedom of expression and freedom of assembly, all the more threatened with the election of Donald Trump to the US presidency.   Her urgent call is that we all need to stand up, make our voices heard, and resist attempts to close down civil society space.

This is not a challenge limited to the US.  Far from it.  Increasingly across the African continent, there are noises and threats regarding the closure (or further constriction) of digital space, in addition to pressure on the physical civil society space – where it does exist – to organise and express challenges to governments.

As Bernholz says:

All our civic action – from philanthropy to protest, from petitions to polling – now takes place on a digital infrastructure. Every organization that is dedicated to helping the vulnerable, to free expression, or that understands it is simply an institutionalized form of our right to peaceable assembly and private action for public benefit should realize now that their existence depends on the rights now threatened. As civil society has closed elsewhere, so has it now been directly, overtly, and rather unabashedly threatened from the people elected to lead our government. 

The most important point that Bernholz makes, though, is that we all need to get ourselves trained up around digital space, the ways (both actual and potential) in which this space is threatened, and what we need to start doing about it. Right now.

Bernholz mentions a number of angles, including “capacity building, consulting, governance training, and technology support need to address digital governance and practices”.  And she goes on to stress that “It is not optional, it’s integral to running a safe and effective organization”.

In other words, this isn’t something we need to watch out for coming down the line.  Rather this is something that we need not only to be monitoring now, but we need to be managing the risks already, and putting place policies and practices that will ensure we are able to continue to work effectively and safely.

Ute Scheffer’s September 2016 article, No right for digital participation in many regions of the world, offers insights into the current state of play with regard to journalism and clampdowns on expression and organising.   According to Scheffer, South Africa ranked 39th of 180 countries in the World Press Freedom Index.  This is above the US, and only one place behind the UK. There are two thoughts on this – one is that this is very revealing about the squeeze on press freedom in these apparent bastions of democracy and freedom; the second is that having a reasonable ranking means we must maintain and increase (not loosen) our vigilance.

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It is critical to bear in mind that, with regard to digital civil society – and the digital space in which we operate – it is not just about access to news and information, but is also fundamentally about forms of communicating, organising, advocating, mobilising, and attracting resources in support of organisational and campaign work.

Organisations in South Africa working on these issues (and supported with philanthropic funding) suddenly become central to South African civil society then, right?  So who are they, what are they working on, and how do we find them?  Below are a few of the best known organisations working to defend our freedoms with regard to information, and the sharing of information in print and in the digital space.

Start engaging around our digital space, people – global trends (and Lucy Bernholz) indicate that the time is now.

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The Lexicons of the Non-Profit Sector: do you speak non-profit?

By Gabrielle Ritchie : Independent Advisor, Consultant and Service Provider to Grantseekers and Grantmakers

1st April 2015

The vocabulary of the non-profit sector often comes under the spotlight not just for its exclusionary jargon-ness, but also because often meaning is not as widely shared as the very existence of the jargon would have us believe.  Questions are often raised about what we really mean by the jargon we use? Are we only talking to each other, or do others actually understand our lingo? Are we sharing our thoughts and messages best, to bring people along with us on our mission, or have we been taken in by our own hype?  Should NPO-speak be more or less corporate?  Should we speak stronger business language, or should the corporate sector learn to speak “non-profit”?  Does speaking corporate make us appear smarter and more attractive to funders?  What about those who can’t or don’t or won’t go corporate with their modes of communication? Are they automatically at a disadvantage when it comes to accessing funding? Are those who don’t speak corporate less likely to attract funding? What is the real difference between corporate and non-profit lexicons? If the donor world is widely English first-lanuagage, and the non-profit world predominantly English second-language (in South Africa, at least), how does this exacerbate the existing power-dynamics already at play between grantseekers and grantmakers?

Of particular interest to me is whether the language of marketing, branding, communications and PR is necessarily “corporate speak”, or whether this language can be (or perhaps has already been) appropriated, adopted and re-worked to suit the non-profit sector.  Can the non-profit sector comfortably speak branding and marketing without appearing is if it has corporatised?

The Non-Profit Service Providers Network

A key forum for such discussion is the Cape Town-based Non-profit Service Providers Network (NPSPN), a referral-based group of individuals and small companies who provide services, advice, consultancies and other forms of support to non-profit organisations operating in South African civil society.  This is an energetic group of people looking to share the particular challenges and experiences of working with non-profits, and seeking a forum where thinking and experience can be debated, up-ended, challenged, and spotlighted.  The network is a really useful meeting of minds, where pertinent issues can be surfaced and discussed amongst peers and colleagues.

What struck me at the March bi-monthly gathering of the NPSPN is that all of the for-profit service providers around the table speak very competent non-profit.  While most of those who provide services and products to non-profit organisations are themselves for-profit, most individuals appear to make “a living” rather than generate any vast profit from the fees they charge for their services.  It is here that the for-profit service provider and the non-profit to whom they are providing services become almost indistinguishable.  These service providers, for the most part, are as non-profit in outlook, world-view and language as the non-profits they serve and as those employed in non-profit organisations.  In effect, these service providers are no different in their goals and missions to most of the organisations they work with, and it raises the question of why we insist on boxing the small service providers as “for-profit” as if in some false juxtaposition to the organisations they serve.

At the March 2015 NPSPN meeting, a few issues of terminology and language were tabled for discussion. I am writing here less about the phenomenon of sector-based jargon, which exist in every sector, and more about the need to ensure that we are all understanding each other – in an including way, rather than languageing ourselves into a reformulation of the social elite in ways that are excluding, elitist, alienating and effectively quite imprecise and therefore inaccessible to so-called outsiders.  In a December 2012 post, Jodie Shupac reflects (referencing others) on the source of contemporary nonprofit jargon.  Shupac notes that much non-profit language has become corporatised, attributable to the fact that as governments have increasingly called on nonprofits to provide the services they once offered, the sector has felt the need to up its language game.  Taking their cues from the business world, says Shupac, non-profits are increasingly using language that is business-oriented, and is flavoured to convey their lean shapes and efficient functioning.

Issues that arose at the March NPSPN meeting focused, in one or other way, on the ways we talk about what we do. These issues included, amongst others:

1. The importance of marketing for non-profits – the importance of profiling one’s organisation, of having a communications strategy, of being visible on social media platforms and of ensuring the use of traditional media channels and platforms.  But the question was raised – Why? Why is this important if you are an organisation with extremely limited resources and a clear mission?  It was also suggested that the commercial “selling” language used in marketing is inappropriate for the NPO sector.  Is this the case?  Why is it inappropriate, and what compromises occur (possibly unwittingly) through the adoption of selling-speak?

2. In discussions on non-profit branding, what are we really talking about?  Are we talking the language of corporate branding, or does branding in the non-profit sector serve similar but ultimately separate functions?

3. If you have very limited budget, how do you best and most appropriately target your spend in ways that serve your organisational mission, and which also serve your need to promote your cause and/or your organisation?  Are there different levels of marketing available for different levels of spend?

4. How do corporate and non-profit clients differ?  Do small service providers need to fully adjust their ways of speaking, languageing and referencing to accommodate their different clients, depending on sector?

5. Are there specific features or characteristics of the NPO client – almost an NPO personality type, perhaps?  Are challenges specific to providing services to NPOs?

6. Are fees charged on a sliding scale from corporate, to big NPO, to small NPO?  Does one reflect the full fee and then include the discounted rate as an indication of the extent to which a for-profit provider is supplying a non-profit with a full discount?

Many of the questions raised, both explicitly and implicitly, weren’t answered in the session – but they remain pertinent and they warrant discussion.  If you  have any thoughts to share, please do!!